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许中缘:论智能汽车侵权责任立法——以工具性人格为中心

| 时间: 2019-06-28 23:33:34 | 文章来源: 《法学》2019年第4期

【注释】

*作者单位:中南大学法学院。本文为国家社会科学基金项目《司法裁判过程中的人工智能应用研究》(立项编号:18BFX008)、《国家治理体系中司法裁判与公共政策互动关系研究》(立项编号:A111100314),教育部人文社科项目《人工智能时代新型民事法律责任研究》及法治湖南建设与区域社会治理协同创新中心资助的阶段性成果。

  [1]也可以将其翻译为“无人驾驶汽车”。但基于现阶段无人驾驶汽车均需要有驾驶者,本文特将其翻译为“智能汽车”。但为了使用的方便,本文也采用“自动驾驶汽车”“无人驾驶汽车”等概念,除非特别说明,这些概念之间并没有明显差异。

  [2]See CNN Wire Staff, Google Gets License to Operate Driverless Cars in Nevada, https://edition.cnn.com/2012/05/07/tech/nevada-driveless-car/,2018年8月20日访问。

  [3]参见《无人驾驶汽车:这里有你应该知道的一切》,http://www.sohu.com/a/234410934_100001185,2018年11月3日访问。

  [4]See Jessica S. Brodsky, Autonomous Vehicle Regulation: How an Uncertain Legal Landscape May Hit the Brakes on Self-Driving Cars, Berkeley Tech. L. J.31, 2016, p.851.

  [5]See James M. Anderson et al., Autonomous Vehicle Technology: A Guide for Policymakers, RAND Corporation, 2014, p.47.

  [6]See Gary E. Marchant & Rachel A. Lindor, The Coming Collision Between Autonomous Vehicles and the Liability System, Santa Clara L. Rev.52, 2012, pp.1321-1322.

  [7]See Automated and Electric Vehicles Bill, part 1, https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/cbill/2017-2019/0112/18112.pdf, 2018年11月7日访问。

  [8]See Markus Burianski and M. Theissen, An Important Milestone as Germany Permits Automated Vehicles: Market Impact and Outlook, https://www.businesslaw-magazine.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2017/09/1_Burianski_BLM_032017.pdf, 2018年7月14日访问。

  [9]See Who’ll Be in the Driving Seat in Future? German Bundestag Passes Draft Bill on Automated Driving, https://www.gsk.de/uploads/media/GSK-Update_Bundestag_passes_draft_bill_on_automated_driving_01.pdf, 2018年7月14日访问。

  [10]美国加州大学洛杉矶分校电气工程和公共政策教授John Villasenor认为“产品责任法提供了一个经过时间考验的框架,在其他情况下已被证明适应技术驱动的责任问题”,他认为同样的框架“当应用于自动驾驶汽车时,同样能够这样做”。同前注[5],James M. Anderson等文。同样的观点参见Ryan Abbott, The Reasonable Computer: Disrupting the Paradigm of Tort Liability, Geo. Wash. L. Rev.1, 2018, pp.1-45; Richard Kelley et al., Liability in Robotics: An International Perspective on Robots as Animals, Advanced Robotics 24, 2010, p.1861; Andrea Bertolini, Robots as Products: The Case for a Realistic Analysis of Robotic Applications and Liability Rules, Law Innovation and Technology 5, 2013, p.214.我国也有如此观点,参见杨立新:《人工智能机器人的民法地位与自动驾驶汽车的交通事故责任》,http://www.fxcxw.org/index.php/Home/Miaowen/artIndex/id/15969/tid/6.html, 2018年6月20日访问。

  [11]See Jeffrey K. Gurney, Sue My Car Not Me: Products Liability and Accidents Involving Autonomous Vehicles, U. Ill. J. L.13, 2013, p.247, p.272; Kyle Graham, Of Frightened Horses and Autonomous Vehicles: Tort Law and Its Assimilation of Inventions, Santa Clara L. Rev.51, 2012, p.1241, p.1270.

  [12]笔者曾就为何需要确立智能机器人的工具性人格进行阐述,参见许中缘:《论智能机器人的工具性人格》,《法学评论》2018年第5期。

  [13]See Bryant Walker Smith, SAE Levels of Driving Automation, http://cyberlaw.stanford.edu/blog/2013/12/sae-levels-drivingautomation, 2018年7月13日访问。

  [14]See Bryant Walker Smith, How Governments Can Promote Automated Driving, N. M. L. Rev.47, 2017, p.113.

  [15]同上注,第113页。

  [16]See Mark Brady, Kylie Burn, Tania Leiman and Kieran Tranter, Automated Vehicles and Australian Personal Injury Compensation Schemes, T. L. J.24, 2017, p.41.

  [17]张琪:《中美产品责任法中产品缺陷的比较研究》,《法制与社会发展》1999年第2期。

  [18]See Bryant Walker Smith, The Transformation of Transportation: Autonomous Vehicles, Google Cars, and Vehicles Talking to Each Other: Automated Driving and Product Liablity, Mich. St. L. Rev.37, 2017, p.42.

  [19]同前注[18],Bryant Walker Smith文,第39~40页。

  [20]See Ryan Calo, Robotics and the Lessons of Cyberlaw, Calif. L. Rev.103, 2015, p.532.

  [21]同前注[6],Gary E. Marchant、Rachel A. Lindor文,第1321页。

  [22]See National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Automatic Vehicle Control Systems, https://static.nhtsa.gov/odi/inv/2016/INCLA-PE16007-7876. PDF, 2018年3月5日访问。

  [23]同上注。

  [24]See Kevin Funkhouser, Paving the Road Ahead: Autonomous Vehicles, Products Liability, and the Need for a New Approach, Utah L. Rev.2013, 2013, p.441.

  [25]See Kyle Colonna, Autonomous Cars & Tort Liability, 4 Case W. Reserve J. L. Tech.& Internet 81, 2012, pp.91-92.

  [26]See Prateek Bansal & Kara M. Kockelman, Forecasting Americans’ Long-Term Adoption of Connected and Autonomous Vehicle Technologies, Transportation Research Part A.95, 2017, pp.49-63.

  [27]See David King, Putting the Reins on Autonomous Vehicle Liability: Why Horse Accidents Are the Best Common Law Analogy, N. C. J. L.& Tech.19, 2017, p.141.

  [28]See National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Automated Vehicle Control Systems, https://static.nhtsa.gov/odi/inv/2016/INCLA-PE16007-7876. PDF, 2018年6月5日访问。

  [29]See K. C. Webb, Products Liability & Autonomous Vehicles: Who’s Driving Whom?, 23 Rich. J. L.&Tech.9, 2016, p.34;同前注[10],Ryan Abbott文,第34页。

  [30]同前注[27],David King文,第146页。

  [31]See Jack M. Balkin, The Path of Robotics Law, Calif. L. Rev. Circuit 6, 2015, p.53.

  [32]See Harry Surden, Mary-Anne Williams, Technological Opacity, Predictability, and Self-Driving Cars, Cardozo L. Rev.38, 2016, pp.54-155.

  [33]See Harry Surden, Machine Learning and Law, Wash. L. Rev.89, 2014, p.87.

  [34]同上注,第115页。

  [35]同前注[32],Harry Surden、Mary-Anne Williams文,第128页。

  [36]See Alexander Hevelke & Julian Nida-Rümelin, Responsibility for Crashes of Autonomous Vehicles: An Ethical Analysis, Science and Engineering Ethics, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11948-014-9565-5,2018年7月15日访问。

  [37]王利明:《侵权责任法研究》上卷,中国人民大学出版社2010年版,第259页。

  [38]See Jordan Fowler, Trail-Blazing an Industry: The Potential Effects and Defects of Autonomous Vehicles and the Need for Legislation in Texas, Tex. Tech. L. Rev.49, 2017, p.903.

  [39]See Sophia H. Duffy and Jamie Patrick Hopkins, Sit, Stay, Drive: The Future of Autonomous Car Liability, SMU Sci.& Tech. L.Rev.16, 2013, p.462.

  [40]See Paul T. Hayden, Butterfield Rides Again: Plaintiff’s Negligence as Superseding or Sole Proximate Cause in Systems of Pure Comparative Responsibility, Loy. L. A. L. Rev.33, 2000, p.894.

  [41]See Cornelius J. Peck, Washington’s Partial Rejection and Modification of the Common Law Rule of Joint and Several Liability, Wash. L. Rev.62, 1987, p.233, p.238.

  [42]See Weston Kowert, The Foreseeability of Human-Artificial Intelligence Interactions, Tex. L. Rev.96, 2017, p.201.

  [43]See Matthew U. Scherer, Regulating Artificial Intelligence Systems: Risks, Challenges, Competencies, and Strategies, Harv. J. L.& Tech.29, 2016, pp.391-393.

  [44]同前注[11],Jeffrey K. Gurney文,第265页;同前注[6],Gary E. Marchant、Rachel A. Lindor文,第1321页、第1329页。

  [45]See Chris Ziegler, Volvo Says It Will Take the Blame If One of Its Self-Driving Cars Crashes, http://www.theverge.com/2015/10/7/9470551/volvo-self-driving-car-liability, 2018年7月18日访问。

  [46]See Dylan Le Valley, Comment, Autonomous Vehicle Liability—Application of Common Carrier Liability, 36 Seattle U. L. Rev.5, 2013, p.9.

  [47]See Robert W. Peterson, New Technology—Old Law: Autonomous Vehicles and California’s Insurance Framework, Santa Clara L. Rev.52, 2012, p.1359.

  [48]同上注。

  [49]同前注[11],Jeffrey K. Gurney文,第269页。

  [50]See David C. Vladeck, Machines Without Principals: Liability Rules and Artificial Intelligence, Wash. L. Rev.89, 2014, p.135.

  [51]同前注[11],Kyle Graham文,第1241页、第1266页。

  [52]同前注[39],Sophia H. Duffy、Jamie Patrick Hopkins文,第467页。

  [53]同前注[11],Jeffrey K. Gurney文,第269页。

  [54]冯洁语:《人工智能技术与责任法的变迁——以自动驾驶技术为考察》,《比较法研究》2018年第2期。

  [55]同前注[12],许中缘文。

  [56]同前注[31],Jack M. Balkin文,第52页。

  [57]同前注[10],Ryan Abbott文,第34页。

  [58]See Neil M. Richards and William D. Smart, How Should the Law Think about Robots, Robot Law, 2016, p.20.

  [59]参见房绍坤、张旭昕:《我国民法典编纂中的主体类型》,《法学杂志》2016年第12期。

  [60]袁曾:《智能机器人有限法律人格审视》,《东方法学》2017年第5期。

  [61]同前注[12],许中缘文。

  [62]参见杨芳:《德国一般人格权中的隐私保护信息自由原则下对自决观念的限制》,《东方法学》2016年第6期。

  [63]参见冯珏:《自动驾驶汽车致损的民事侵权责任》,《中国法学》2018年第6期。

  [64]参见[德]卡尔·拉伦茨:《德国民法通论》上册,王晓晔、邵建东等译,法律出版社2003年版,第57页。

  [65]See Berg J., Of Elephants and Embryos: A Proposed Framework for Legal Personhood, Hastings Law Journal 59, 2007, p.369.

  [66]See Adam Rosenberg, Strict Liability: Imagining a Legal Framework for Autonomous Vehicles, Tul. J. Tech.& Intell. Prop.20, 2017, p.205.

  [67]同前注[5],James M. Anderson等书,第135页。

  [68] See Alex Davies, Numbers Don’t Lie, Self Driving Cars Are Getting Good, http://www.wired.com/2017/02/california-dmvautonomous-car-disengagement/,2018年7月15日访问。

  [69]同前注[66],Adam Rosenberg文,第212页。

  [70]同前注[14],Bryant Walker Smith文,第110页。

  [71]同前注[5],James M. Anderson等书,第58~59页。

  [72]同前注[4],Jessica S. Brodsky文,第862页。

  [73]See Peter Valdes-Dapena, Thrilled and Bummed by Google’s Self-Driving Car, http://money.cnn.com/2012/05/17/autos/googledriverless-car/index.htm, 2018年8月15日访问。

  [74]同前注[38],Jordan Fowler文,第919~920页。

  [75]参见《电动汽车换电池费用堪比买新车?》,http://www.sohu.com/a/256862451_413748,2018年11月2日访问。

  [76]See Insurer Launches UK’s First Driverless Car Policy, https://www.theguardian.com/business/2016/jun/07/uk-driverless-carinsurance-policy-adrian-flux, 2018年11月4日访问。

  [77]See Automated and Electric Vehicles Act 2018, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2018/18/contents, 2018年11月4日访问。

  [78]同前注[31],Jack M. Balkin文,第46页。

  [79]同前注[8],Markus Burianski、M. Theissen文。

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